Autophagy is a critical cellular process that involves the breakdown and digestion of intracellular components by the lysosome. This process not only allows cells to effectively mobilize and recycle cell constituents, but also prevents the accumulation of damaged organelles, misfolded proteins and invading microorganisms. Autophagy is a multistep process that begins with the sequestration of organelles and cytoplasmic proteins. These cellular components are sequestered by a double membrane, forming an autophagosome.
The relationship between autophagy and apoptosis is complex. Both pathways share common stimuli and components, and can regulate the activity of the other. However, the specific factors and mechanisms that dictate the choice between autophagy and apoptosis remain unclear.
In order to measure autophagy and cytotoxicity, kits using monodansylcadaverine (MDC), a fluorescent compound that is incorporated into multilamellar bodies by both an ion trapping mechanism and the interaction, can be used. with membrane lipids, as a probe for the detection of autophagic vacuoles in cultured cells. Propidium iodide is used as a marker of cell death.
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