FPLC (Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography) is, as its name suggests, a liquid chromatography that is often used to analyze or separate compounds from a mixture of proteins. In FPLC, the mobile phase is an aqueous solution or buffer. The stationary phase is a resin contained in a column. The sample is introduced into the column and migrates into the resin following the flow of the liquid phase. The different components of the sample will then bind or diffuse into the resin. There are several types of FPLC depending on the resin used. Compounds can be separated by their size (size exclusion chromatography (SEC)), by their charge distribution (ion exchange chromatography) or by their biological or chemical affinity for the resin used (affinity chromatography).
For ease of use, a wide range of pre-filled columns for techniques such as ion exchange, gel filtration (size exclusion), hydrophobic interaction and affinity chromatography are available. It is also possible to opt for empty columns in order to fill them with the resin of one's choice.