It is often referred to as the "little brain" because of its size relative to the main brain. However, although it is smaller, the cerebellum is an important organ of the central nervous system that plays a crucial role in the coordination of muscle movements, balance and posture.

The cerebellum is composed of several parts, each with a specific function. The most important parts are the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres. The vermis is located in the midline of the cerebellum and is involved in the coordination of axial movements, such as walking and posture. The cerebellar hemispheres are involved in the coordination of limb movements and in the maintenance of balance.

The cerebellum receives sensory information from different parts of the body, as well as information from vision and hearing. It then processes this information and sends it to other parts of the brain, such as the motor brain, to make precise, coordinated movements.

There are several biomarkers that can be associated with the cerebellum. Some examples include:

1. S100β and GFAP proteins: These proteins are markers of astroglial activity, which are glial cells in the brain. Studies have shown that their expression level can be correlated with cerebellar activity.

2. Inflammatory cytokines: Studies have shown that levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), can be increased in cerebellar dysfunction.

3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS): This technique provides information on metabolites present in the cerebellum, such as levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho). Abnormal levels of these metabolites may be associated with cerebellar disorders.

4. Evoked potentials: Evoked potentials are electrophysiological measures that assess the functionality of the cerebellum. Studies have shown that changes in evoked potentials can be associated with cerebellar disorders.