Nod-Like Receptors (NLR)
Nucleotid-binding Oligomerization Domain proteins (NOD) receptors are part of the innate immune response. They belong to the large NLR family (NOD-like receptors), with NALP and NAID. The majority of these receptors are represented by the NOD1, NOD2, IPAF or NLRC4 receptors. They recognize bacterial components abnormally present in the cytoplasm of cells, including the peptidoglycan (PGN) of GRAM negative bacteria or bacterial flagellin. Like all PRR (pattern recognition receptors), they participate in the recognition of the pathogen in order to trigger various signals that will allow to generate an anti-inflammatory response, resulting from innate immunity.
Nucleotide oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) are cytoplasmic proteins that can function as molecular pattern recognition receptors.
NLRs contain 3 domains - NACHT domain (NOD or NBD - core binding domain) central, common to all NLRs, most NLRs also have a C-terminal domain with leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and variable N-terminal . The NACHT domain is involved in ATP dependent auto-oligomerization and LRR detects the presence of the ligand. The N-terminal domain is responsible for the homotypic protein-protein interaction and may include the caspase recruitment domain (CARD), the pyrine domain (PYD), the acid transactivation domain, or the baculovirus inhibitor repeats (BIR).